Vitamin D, an anti-inflammatory mediator, has potential benefits for physical and oral health. Although it is produced endogenously, some individuals have a greater need for dietary and supplemental sources. This repeated-measures cross-sectional study assessed associations between total vitamin D intake and periodontal health in older men. Participants were 562 members of the Department of Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study, mean age 62.9 years, who were examined 1 to 4 times between 1986 and 1998. A calibrated examiner measured probing pocket depth (PPD) and attachment loss (AL) on each tooth. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) was determined from radiographs. Severe periodontal disease was defined as PPD ≥ 5 mm on ≥ 1 tooth and AL ≥ 6 mm at ≥ 2 sites (not on same tooth), and moderate-to-severe alveolar bone loss as ABL ≥ 40% at ≥ 3 sites. Generalized estimating equations were used to compute the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of having periodontal disease by level of vitamin D intake. Total vitamin D intake ≥ 800 IU was associated with lower odds of severe periodontal disease (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.55-0.81) and moderate-to-severe ABL (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.30-0.96) relative to intake < 400 IU/day. Vitamin D intake may protect against periodontal disease progression.