There is limited evidence surrounding oral health in emerging adult, sexual minority men of color. This study examined the association between sociodemographic factors, health literacy, cigarette, e-cigarette, and alcohol use on oral health outcomes. Secondary data analysis was conducted with 322 sexual minority men ages 18–34 in the United States. Between-group, mean-level, and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined differences on oral health outcomes. Increased cigarette (aOR = 1.84, p = 0.03), e-cigarette (aOR = 1.40, p = 0.03), and alcohol use (aOR = 2.07, p = 0.05) were associated with extended time away from the dentist. Health literacy (aOR = 0.93, p = 0.05) was negatively associated. Increased cigarette (aOR = 1.17, p = 0.04) and cigarette use (aOR = 1.26, p = 0.04) were associated with tooth loss. Health literacy was negatively associated (aOR = 0.65, p = 0.03). Increased e-cigarette (aOR = 1.74, p = 0.04) and cigarette use (aOR = 4.37, p < 0.001) were associated with dental affordability issues. Lower health literacy and racial identification as Black were associated with dental affordability issues; demonstrating an urgent need to address these factors to improve oral health in emerging adult sexual minority men of color.