Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are associated with cancers of the cervix and oropharyngeal region. Two kinds of HPV vaccines (bivalent and quadravalent) available in the market for cervical cancer prevention are safe and efficacious. Because the same types of HPV that cause cervical cancer are also associated with oropharyngeal cancers, it is thought that these vaccines may also be effective in prevention of these cancers. A call for extending the indication for these vaccines to include oropharyngeal cancer prevention has been made. Oral health professionals, who are in the forefront of visualizing the oral and oropharyngeal areas, are poised to detect abnormal findings in these regions and should consider discussing HPV vaccines with their patients. This brief review discusses the role of HPV in oral lesions and oropharyngeal cancers and the public health implications of this infection.