Even in the 21st century, dental caries is considered a global burden, severely upsetting the health and quality of life of those affected. Apart from the usage of fluoride and regular oral hygiene, one of the most important prophylactic approaches against the occurrence of caries is the sealing of pits and fissures. However, the rapid progress of new materials and applications for sealing pits and fissures also raises new questions about their correct application. Recent literature on pit and fissure sealing, caries prevention, as well as caries risk assessment for both children and adults was reviewed. This report provides a general overview of pit and fissure sealing, the materials used for sealing occlusal surfaces, as well as indications and possible side effects. The conclusions are that sealing pit and fissures of primary and permanent teeth is an effective method for preventing and arresting caries. However, regular checkups must be conducted to avoid advanced tooth decay attributable to leakages in the sealing.