The aim of this study was to investigate the association of female caregivers’ oral health literacy with their knowledge, behaviors, and the reported oral health status of their young children. Data on caregivers’ literacy, knowledge, behaviors, and children’s oral health status were used from structured interviews with 1158 caregiver/child dyads from a low-income population. Literacy was measured with REALD-30. Caregivers’ and children’s median ages were 25 yrs (range = 17-65) and 15 mos (range = 1-59), respectively. The mean literacy score was 15.8 (SD = 5.3; range = 1-30). Adjusted for age, education, and number of children, low literacy scores (< 13 REALD-30) were associated with decreased knowledge (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.41, 2.45) and poorer reported oral health status (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.05). Lower caregiver literacy was associated with deleterious oral health behaviors, including nighttime bottle use and no daily brushing/cleaning. Caregiver oral health literacy has a multidimensional impact on reported oral health outcomes in infants and young children.