Objectives. We sought to better understand the determinants of oral health disparities by examining individual-level psychosocial stressors and resources and self-rated oral health in nationally representative samples of Black American, Caribbean Black, and non-Hispanic White adults., Methods. We conducted logistic regression analyses on fair or poor versus better oral health using data from the National Survey of American Life (n = 6082)., Results. There were no significant racial differences. Overall, 28% of adults reported having fair or poor oral health. Adults with lower income and less than a high school education were each about 1.5 times as likely as other adults to report fair or poor oral health. Higher levels of chronic stress, depressive symptoms, and material hardship were associated with fair or poor oral health. Adults living near more neighborhood resources were less likely to report fair or poor oral health. Higher levels of self-esteem and mastery were protective, and more-religious adults were also less likely to report fair or poor oral health., Conclusions. Social gradients in self-rated oral health were found, and they have implications for developing interventions to address oral health disparities.