In the last few decades, growing evidence have shown a possible impact of diet and nutrients on oral health. This review aims to describe, in the light of current knowledge, the role of diet, nutrients, and micronutrients in periodontal health and periodontal diseases. A variety of macronutrients and micronutrients could have an impact on periodontal health. The balanced intake of unprocessed complex carbohydrates, vegetable proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins positively affects periodontal inflammation. On the other way, refined carbohydrates, non-vegetable proteins, proinflammatory saturated fatty acids and an unbalanced supply of vitamins and minerals may increase periodontal inflammation. This review will discuss the current evidence that shows how a healthy and balanced diet has anti-inflammatory and protective effects on periodontal health. Therefore, it appears that adopting a correct lifestyle and diet should be encouraged in patients with oral and periodontal disease.