Using data from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia Study, we examined variability in susceptibility to dental caries among children and adolescents in rural Appalachia. Among 210 participants who were caries-free at the initial visit, age at the baseline visit can be used as a proxy for the degree of caries resistance; probability of caries development at the tooth level decreased as age at the baseline visit increased. Participants who stayed caries-free for a longer period during childhood and adolescence experienced less extensive caries, as measured by the number of carious teeth. However, the probability of becoming caries-positive did not correlate with age at the baseline visit. For children between 1 and 18 years of age, there was not a “threshold age” after which a caries-free child’s risk of caries onset is significantly reduced.