The objectives of this paper are to present an overview of children’s oral health-related quality of life and include specific applications for using quality of life assessment in dental research. The process of developing pediatric oral health- related quality of life measures, in particular the Child Oral Health Impact Profile, is outlined. Examples of children’s oral health-related quality of life measurement in caries research are also provided. Quality of life outcomes are presented and discussed in the context of caries research. Lastly, the relevance of measuring clinically meaningful difference in the context of measuring outcomes research is highlighted with recommendations for future research.